Outstanding and nearly full coverage overall decoration Fine original condition; H: Soon thereafter, the workers realized that a reddish color could also be achieved by immersing the marbles in iron nitrate or iron vitriol solutions. Each bud has a black stem; between each stem is a trifurcate green leaf, and all the stems and leaves radiate from a central green dot. Such vessels and other ceramics were slipped with lead glaze prior to around and beginning around the middle of the previous century, and therefore the marbles likely also date to this period. Drinking vessels were also imported, as were simple lozenge- shaped mineral water bottles in the 1. The color of paint applied to Chinas was limited because many coloring compounds could not survive the final firing of the marbles.
A few such marbles, probably made non-commercially, have also been recovered from at English potteries near Wakefield, Yorkshire. Frechen and the Westerwald were the most common sources of Rhenish stoneware found in the Chesapeake. A third class, yellowware, comprises a very small portion of the earthenware marble category. They will have two or more leaves radiating from a single point, though the leaves seldom touch one another. Chinas with single sets of wide and narrow lines are identical to those above but have only one set of lines. These were the earliest of the three basic styles of ceramic marbles the other two being Chinas porcelain and Clays earthenware.
Pennsylvania Pottery Companies
Century - SOLDBaluster jug with strap handle and turned base; pewter lid attachment on handle; slightly domed lid appears to retain original thumb- piece. These marbles were produced in vast numbers in both Europe mainly Germany and America. Rhenish stoneware has a hard, impermeable body with low porosity. Several stages of firing occurred depending on the treatment of the Chinas in terms of glazing and decoration. By there were nine mills in the region; by the end of the century, there were more than The glaze on modern reproduction Chinas usually consists of an acrylic spray or other fixative substance.
These marbles are typically unglazed and mostly date to the period ca. Then these cubes were placed into grooves in sandstone grindstones through which water was forced, turning the marble until it was smoothed into a perfect sphere. Blue on gray stoneware developed in Raeren in the mid- 1. Variegated earthenware marbles are generally unglazed, though glazed examples have been found, but only from American sites and collections.
Common Brown-Bodied Earthenware Common brown-bodied earthenware marbles are usually referred to as clays or commies. King George I 1. England in the 1.
FLINTS Flint marbles are discussed separately from agates because, though they are related, they are composed of non-semiprecious stone. Water was forced through a water wheel, which turned the millstone against an oaken block, smoothing down the limestone. Most of those with two sets of lines are unglazed and date to the period ca. Lined crockery marbles were introduced in the late s in Germany. Again, some hand ground agates will lack faceting, and will appear to be machine ground. England in the 1.
Brown Saltglazed Stoneware ca. Both of these patterns are formed by mineral impurities. Chinas with intersecting single lines are similar to those with sets of lines, though there are simply two or rarely three single lines that encircle the equator and intersect with one another. By there was at least one mill dedicated to grinding pebbles into marbles; this mill was located near Sollingen, Germany.
Early Iron Age
Wreath Chinas are those in which two sets of spirals, one on each pole, are separated by an equatorial band of leaves or leafsprays. Porcelain is a term used to refer to high-fired white-bodied clays. The slip may completely cover the marble or simply form patches on it.
Playrite Marble and Novelty Company. Leaves on these Chinas are primarily red or green. Leafspray opposite Spiral Garland Chinas are those in which there are linear chains of leaves filling each quadrant of a China single intersecting lines or sets of lines. Skerry and Hood 2.
Contact Dealer For Price Stock: Each of the primary design elements will be discussed in detail below. Please note that most of the information on this page is borrowed from the writings of Jeff Carskadden and Richard Gartley, both of whom have heavily researched this topic and are gratefully thanked for helping advance the hobby of marble collecting into the realm of professional archaeology. Limestone marbles were manufactured by first being cut into small cubes.
Like spiral Chinas, they were decorated with a brush stroke as the marble revolved on a wheel. Spiral Leaf Chinas Leaves are seldom the defining element of Chinas, but rather were used to fill in spaces left by other designs. Frechen until the mid- 1. Ghost images of these mounts, as well as the lug holes where they were attached, are sometimes visible on handle sherds Gaimster 1. Stoneware marbles first appeared in the s and were produced mainly in Germany and Belgium, and distributed by the Dutch.
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They are probably early examples, and are very rare. There is usually a band of leaves around the equator to offset the sets of spirals, though on a few examples there is no equatorial decoration. They will have two or more leaves radiating from a single point, though the leaves seldom touch one another. There are several styles of Chinas that do not fit into any of the above categories. In fact, many of these marbles were used by the navies of several nations, particularly England, as canister shot for their cannons.